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What is 5G? What Does 5G Technology Provide?

Since mobile phones are one of the technologies most frequently used by human beings, mobile technologies are also developing rapidly. While 4G has just entered human life, 5G has become the talk of the day. This is a testament to how fast mobile technologies are developing. 5G powers IoT (Internet of Things ) networks and facilitates new high-bandwidth applications. In this article, we will tell you about 5G technology and what you need to know about 5G.

What is 5G?
The term “5G” refers to a group of common uses for substantially faster wireless internet technologies. Users using 5G have much faster internet and less latency. Also, since 5G is the 5th generation, it means the infrastructure has changed for the 5th time.

 With each new generation technology, this infrastructure needs to be changed or added. In addition, 5G aims to make the VR and autonomous cars we use today more useful as it strengthens IoT networks.

Differences Between 5G and 4G
When switching to a new generation wireless technology, the most striking feature is the speed of the internet. 5G networks have the potential to reach speeds of 10 Gbps to 20 Gbps. 

Not only does 5G surpass the speeds of 4G networks, it is also much faster than the wired internet that comes to many people’s homes. 5G delivers network speeds that rival fiber optic connections. 

The most important feature offered by 5G is speed, but one of the other features is a reduction in network latency, that is, it minimizes ping. 

5G significantly reduces the time it takes to transmit data between the phone and the remote server and provides faster access to data. Network latency depends on many factors, but 5G networks perform better in ideal conditions than 4G.

It gives 60 to 120 times lower latency . These latency rates will make a number of applications such as virtual reality usable in today’s conditions. Technologies Used in 5G A number of independent technologies have been brought together to enable the speed and latency improvements of 5G.

  • Millimeter Wave (mmWave) : 5G networks use frequencies in the 30 to 300 GHz range. The reason for using the name Millimeter Wave is that the wavelengths of the frequencies used vary between 1 and 10 millimeters. 
  • These frequency bands carry more information than the low frequency signals used in 4G LTE. MmWave technology was previously both expensive and difficult to implement. Thanks to the advances in technology, this technology is now used in 5G.
  • Small Cells : A disadvantage of millimeter wave transmission is that it is more prone to interference than Wi-Fi or 4G signals when passing through physical objects. To overcome this problem, the model of 5G infrastructure was changed from 4G.
  •  Instead of antenna masts provided by 4G, 5G networks will be powered by cell towers distributed around the city at intervals of approximately 250 meters, creating smaller cell nodes. 5G base stations have lower power requirements than 4G, and this feature allows easier connection of distribution poles to buildings.
  • Massive Multiple Antenna Systems (Massive MIMO): 5G antennas have multiple input multiple output (MIMO) so they can handle multiple simultaneous two-way conversations on the data signal. 5G networks can handle 20 times more calls than 4G. Massive multiple antenna systems serve to increase the capacity of base stations, and this capacity increase allows base stations to communicate with many more devices. This feature makes 5G (Internet of Things) compatible with IoT. As a result, it enables the use of many more internet-connected wireless devices in the same area without overloading the network.
  • Beamforming Technology: It is quite difficult to send 5G data messages to and from the right places accurately and smoothly. It becomes especially difficult when interference occurs in millimeter waves.To overcome this problem, 5g base stations started to use beamforming technology. In beamforming technology, antennas change the distribution of the signal according to the devices that want to connect to the wireless network. In this way, the network coverage area moves according to the devices and changes shape according to their location. As a result of these processes, 5G provides a stronger and higher quality connection.

Frequencies of 5G Compared to
LTE , 5G has three frequencies in itself. Therefore, these frequencies will offer a different user experience to each user. These frequencies are called low band, mid band and high band frequency.

  • Low Band Frequency is also defined as 1GHz Frequency. For LTE operators, low band is the number one band in terms of usage. Low band frequency has large coverage area and good wall penetration. However, the maximum received speed at low band frequency is 100Mbps.
  • Mid Band Frequency is faster than low band and has less latency. However, the mid-band frequency does not penetrate walls as well as the low band. It is possible to see speeds of up to 1Gbps in the mid-band.
  • High Band Frequency is the frequency that is most ideal for 5G and provides high performance. This frequency can offer peak speeds of up to 10Gbps and has considerably lower latency compared to other frequencies. High Band Frequency has low coverage and low building penetration. High bands were previously used to transmit data from the main network to smaller subnets. However, it was never made available on users’ devices. This was because miniaturized antennas were not available before.


Disadvantages of 5G
Despite the fact that 5G has numerous benefits, it also has certain drawbacks. Three of these disadvantages are as follows.

  • 5G’s Cost of Installation : Developing 5G infrastructure or making adaptations to existing cellular infrastructure can cause high costs. When the infrastructure needed to provide high speed is established, these prices can be reflected on the customers and it can be aimed to remove them from the users However, operators have already started to turn to alternative methods in order not to pass on prices to the user.
  • Use in Rural Areas : 5G can provide a really fast connection for urban areas, but people living in rural areas will not be able to take full advantage of 5G connectivity. Since 5G operators will target big cities, users living in rural areas will be the last to come.
  • Battery Problems of Devices: The batteries of devices connected to 5G seem to run out in a short time. In order for 5G to be used efficiently on devices, battery technology must advance. In addition, in addition to exhausted batteries, users using 5G on their devices claim that they get very hot and they start to complain about this situation.

5G Phones
Although 5G is not widespread in many countries, some 5G phones are already available. 5G is now available on many phones such as Huawei Mate X, Samsung Galaxy 10 and Xiaomi Mi Mix 3. However, since no one knows when 5G will be available, it is better to wait. For example, since Apple is not currently keen on 5G, it only uses 5G technology on the iPhone 12.

 But this can also be seen as a strategy for Apple. In 2012, Apple switched to 4G later than Samsung phones. Therefore, just as it takes time for people to adapt to technology, the same is true for phone companies.

Is There 5G in Turkey?
Although many parts of the world have started to switch to 5G, there is currently no 5G and it is not used in Turkey. But Covid-19 Despite this, development work continues uninterruptedly in different units of 5G technology. 

The estimated launch date of 5G is expected to be in the middle of 2021. However, it is necessary to wait until 2022 for the whole country to be used together. Although some companies release 5G for a trial version, there is no system offered to the public for 5G use. 

One of the systems that came to the fore during the pandemic period was the communication infrastructure. By establishing a good infrastructure and base stations, 5G is being tried to be made available to the public.

Why Has 6G Been Talked Already ?
Some experts say that 5G will not meet its intended latency, speed and security targets . It is said that 6G can easily overcome these doubts. In addition to overcoming these problems, 6G attempts to enable thousands of simultaneous connections. 

However, although 6G offers such good features, one of its important problems is security.A new attack model, tera-hertz-based man-in-the-middle attacks (MIMA), allows hackers to infiltrate between two networks.

 In this way, various eavesdropping operations are carried out by infiltrating between two connections and the process of seizing the desired data is initiated. The good news is that the authorities have quite a long time to come up with a solution to this problem. 6G networks are not expected to be in use until 2030.

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